• Maja Ružić-Baf 00385(0)52377541
  • Sandra Kadum Faculty of Educational Sciences, University Juraj Dobrila of Pula I. M. Ronjgova 1, 52100 Pula, Croatia
  • Katarina Kvaranta Faculty of Educational Sciences, University Juraj Dobrila of Pula I. M. Ronjgova 1, 52100 Pula, Croatia



digital teaching material, online environment, organization of online teaching, testing and assessment, the Internet


Aim. Extraordinary circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to new ways of learning and teaching, with students and teachers facing many challenges. The aim of the research was to examine attitudes and to determine the impressions and experiences of respondents regarding online teaching as well as to investigate and evaluate learning goals with regard to the SARS-COV-2 virus pandemic.

Methods. The research was conducted in the Republic of Croatia on a sample of 1533 university students. A survey questionnaire designed specifically for the purposes of this research was used.Consisted of three independent variables and ten dependent variables related to online teaching.

Results. The data obtained show that in online teaching, the respondents mostly used programs such as Zoom, Microsoft Teams and Merlin, while the least of them used Skype. Regarding testing and assessment, i.e. the grading of success in online teaching, respondents stated that teachers had mostly used colloquia (20.6%) and written exams (19.8%) for grading, while live exams had been used the least. The largest number of research participants, 61.9% of them, expressed the opinion that the criteria and grading procedures were clear and published before individual teaching units

Conclusion. Faculties should design different syllabuses for conducting online classes. Centres should be provided/established with the task of collecting digital teaching materials, processing, and storing them, and making them available to teachers and students.


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Author Biographies

Maja Ružić-Baf, 00385(0)52377541

Maja Ružić-Baf was born in 1976 in Koper, Republic Slovenia.She completed primary school and linguistic high school in Poreč (Croatia). She graduated pre-school education at the Pedagogical Faculty of Pula, Croatia in 1997. The same year she was admitted at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Rijeka (Croatia) and in 2002 she graduated and gained the title of B.A Professor of Pedagogy and ICT. She is employed as a full professor at the Faculty of Educational Sciences of the Juraj Dobrila University of Pula. Field of her interest are: ICT, pedagogy.

Sandra Kadum, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University Juraj Dobrila of Pula I. M. Ronjgova 1, 52100 Pula, Croatia

Sandra Kadum was born in Pula, Croatia, where she attended primary school and high school of an educational field. At the Teacher Training College of Pula she completed the two-year study of classroom teaching. After that she enrolled to the study of classroom teachers' continuation of education in Zadar. In 2010 she defended her master's thesis of the title Grading Pupils in the Lower Grades of Primary School at the faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Rijeka. In 2013 she defended her doctoral thesis of the title Systematic Organisation of Gift in Primary Education Mathematics at the Teachers Training College in Kopar (Univerza na Primorskem). She worked as a classroom teacher in Primary school Stoja in Pula. She is active in the Mathematical Society of Istria, where, as a teacher mentor, she teaches gifted primary education pupils. She has been employed as lecturer at the Juraj Dobrila University of Pula since 2009. She is interested in working with gifted pupils, in didactic dokimology and didactics.

Katarina Kvaranta, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University Juraj Dobrila of Pula I. M. Ronjgova 1, 52100 Pula, Croatia

Katarina Kvaranta was born in Pula, Croatia in the year of 2000. She finished elementary school in Barban and high school in Pula. Currently she is a 3rd year student at the University of Juraj Dobrila in Pula. She is interested in many different areas of education, some of which are gifted children, inclusion, technology in education and learning in general. In her university studies some of her best (seminari?) were about students with learning disabilities and difficulties. In addition, she was a part or wrote researches about modernization and technology affect in children or education, for example: “Social networks disadvantages”, “Online classes and grading” and “How do mobile phones affect children”.


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How to Cite

Ružić-Baf, M. ., Kadum, S., & Kvaranta, K. (2021). ONLINE TEACHING AND GRADING DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC – ATTITUDES OF CROATIAN STUDENTS . Journal of Education Culture and Society, 12(2), 399–411.