CROSS-CULTURAL TRANSITION CARE IN LITHUANIAN SCHOOLS: SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS' PERSPECTIVES
Keywords:Third Culture Kids (TCK), Cross-Culture Kids (CCK), Cross-Cultural Transition Care Programme (CCTCP), School Psychologists, Pupil Mobility
Aim. The study aims to enrich an understanding of how Lithuanian school psychologists perceive the cross-cultural transitional care in the bridging role they are made to play in their schooling contexts in supporting Cross-Culture Kids (CCK).
Methods. The article presents research findings of surveying 200 school psychologists from Lithuania on current practices and challenges Lithuanian schools face in working with CCKs and developing effective and comprehensive school-based Cross-Cultural Transition Care Programmes (CCTCP).
Results. The analysis shows that Lithuanian school psychologists are unfamiliar with CCK concepts and do not feel prepared to deliver CCTC service to migrant pupils and families or CCTC training to their peer teacher and school administration. Issues surrounding migrant integration are alien to many, and many see it as irrelevant to their school contexts, regardless of governmental attempts to integrate returning Lithuanian emigrants in recent years.
Conclusion. The study shows that cross-cultural dialogues—and thus care support—yet need to find space in Lithuanian schools. Through systematic reconsideration, institutions providing educational support and training to key school actors, such as school psychologists, can be better supported. More approachable forms of implementable resources will allow space for schools to negotiate the extent and speed of their involvement, and also provide an arena for cross-cultural narratives and integration care, as they see fit best in their context.
Bauman, Z. (2005). Education in liquid modernity, Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 27(4) 303-317. DOI: 10.1080/10714410500338873.
Bethel, A., Ward, C., & Fetvadjiev, V. (2020). Cross-cultural transition and psychological adaptation of international students: The mediating role of host national connectedness. Frontiers in Education, 5, 1-12. DOI: 10.3389/feduc.2020.539950.
Blažytė, G., & Žibas, K. (2019). Integration of beneficiaries of international protection in the Lithuanian labour market: policies and practices. Transfer, 25(1), 56-70. DOI: 10.1177/1024258918819981.
Carter, M., & McNulty, Y. (2015). International school teachers’ professional development in response to the needs of Third Culture Kids in the classroom. In B. Christiansen (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Global Business Opportunities (pp. 367-389). IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6551-4.ch017.
Cason, R. (2019). Third Culture Kids and paradoxical cosmopolitanism. In G. Delanty (Ed.) Routledge International Handbook of Cosmopolitanism Studies (2nd ed.) (pp. 177-185). Routledge: Oxon. DOI: 10.4324/9781351028905.
Cappellen, T., & Janssens, M. (2010). The career reality of global managers: an examination of career triggers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(11), 1884-1910. DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2010.505090.
Eurydice (2019). The teaching of regional or minority languages in schools in Europe: Eurydice report. Retrieved from https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-regional-or-minority-languages-schools-europe_en.
Eurostat (2015). Eurostat regional yearbook 2015. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/en/web/products-statistical-books/-/ks-ha-15-001.
Fail, H., Thompson, J., & Walker, G. (2004). Belonging, identity and Third Culture Kids, Journal
of Research in International Education, 3(3), 319-338. DOI:10.1177%2F1475240904047358.
Finn Jordan, K. A. (2002). Identity formation and the adult Third Culture Kid. In M. G. Ender (Ed.),
Military Brats and Other Global Nomads: Growing up in Organization Families (pp. 193-209).
Westport, CT: Praeger.
Foucault, M., & Gordon, C. (1980). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings, 1972-1977. New York: Pantheon Books.
Garšvė L., & Mažeikienė N. (2019). Being in-between and nowhere: A hermeneutic approach to negotiating transcultural and third space identities. In von Carlsburg, G. B., N. Mažeikienė & A. Liimets (Eds.) Transcultural Perspectives in Education. (pp. 147-166). Peter Lang Edition.
Garšvė L., Mažeikienė N., & Ruškus, J. (2018). Hermeneutic pedagogy in negotiating and contesting identities: addressing challenges of migration in Lithuania. In M. A. Brown (Ed.), The Shifting Global World of Youth and Education (pp. 56-70). London: Routledge.
Grimshaw, T., & Sears C. (2008). Where am I from? Where do I belong? The negotiable and maintenance of identity by international school students. Journal of Research in International Education, 7(3), 259-278. DOI:10.1177/1475240908096483.
Gysbers, N. C. (2004). Comprehensive guidance and counselling programs: The evolution of accountability, Professional School Counseling, 8(1), 1–14. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/42732409.
Hall, S. (1996). Introduction: who needs identity? In S. Hall & P. du Gay (Eds.), Questions of
Cultural Identity (pp. 1-17). London: Sage. DOI:10.4135/9781446221907.n1.
Killguss, B. (2008).Identity and the need to belong: Understanding identity formation and
place in the lives of global nomads. Illness, Crisis & Loss, 16(2), 137-151. DOI:10.2190%2FIL.16.2.d.
Lee, J. J., & Rice, C. (2007). Welcome to America? International students’ perceptions of discrimination. Higher Education., 53, 381–409. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/29735060.
Mahoney, E., & Barron, J. (2020). Surveying the landscape: Common practices, challenges and opportunities in international school transitions-care. The 2020 Report. SeaChange and Globally Grounded. Retrieved from SeaChange Monitoring website: https://seachangementoring.com/transition-support/
McGhie, V. (2017). Entering university studies: Identifying enabling factors for a successful transition from school to university. Higher Education, 73, 407–422. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10734-016-0100-2.
McLachlan, D. (2007). Global nomads in an international school: Families in transition.
Journal of Research in International Education, 6(1), 233-249. DOI:10.1177%2F1475240907078615.
Ministry of Education, Science and Sports (2019). Development of a network of schools working with children returning/arriving in Lithuania. Create Lithuania. Retrieved from: http://kurklt.lt/projektai/su-i-lietuva-griztanciaisatvykstanciais-vaikais-dirbanciu-mokyklu-tinklo-kurimas/.
Pavlenko, A., & Blackledge, A. (2004). Negotiation of Identities in Multilingual Contexts. Bristol Blue Ridge Summit: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853596483.
Pollock, D., & Van Reken, R. (2009) Third Culture Kids, Second Edition: The Experience of Growing Up Among Worlds. London: Brealey.
Pollock, D., Van Reken, R., & Pollock, M. (2017). Third Culture Kids, Third Edition: The Experience of Growing Up Among Worlds: The Original Classic Book on TCKs. London: Brealey.
Saldana, J. (2013). Power and conformity in today’s schools, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(1), 228-232. Retrieved from http://www.ijhssnet.com/journal/index/1549.
Schaetti, B. F. (1996). Phoenix Rising: A question of cultural identity. In C. D. Smith (Ed.),
Strangers at Home: Essays on the Effects of Living Overseas and Coming “Home” to a Strange
Land (pp. 177- 188). Bayside, NY: Aletheia Publications.
Sears, C. (2011). Integrating multiple identities: Narrative in the formation and maintenance of the self in international school students, Journal of Research in International Education, 10(1), 71-86. DOI:10.1177/1475240911399262.
Risch, R. P. (2008) On the Move: Transition Programs in International Schools. Bethlehem,
PA: Lehigh University.
Ruškus J., & Kuzmickaitė, D. (2016). Return migration in Lithuania: Incoming challenges for children’s education. In M. A. Brows (Ed.) Migration and the Education of Young People 0-19: An Introductory Guide (pp. 71-87). New York: Routledge.
Sussman, N. (2000). The dynamic nature of cultural identity throughout cultural transitions: Why home is not so sweet, Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(4), 355-373. DOI:10.1207/S15327957PSPR0404_5.
Migration Department (2020). Migration Yearbook 2019. Statistics Lithuania. Retrieved from: https://osp.stat.gov.lt/statistikos-leidiniu-katalogas?publication=34900.
Useem, J., Useem, R. H. & Donoghue, J. D. (1963). Men in the middle of the third culture, Human Organization, 22(3): 169-79. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/44124957.
Van Reken, R. (2002). Third Culture Kids: Prototypes for Understanding Other Cross-Cultural Kids. Cross-Cultural Kids. https://www.crossculturalkid.org/who-are-cross-cultural-kids/
Ward, C., & Szabó, Á (2019). Affect, behaviour, cognition and development: Adding to the alphabet of acculturation. In D. Matsumoto & H. S. Hwang (Eds.) Handbook of Culture and Psychology (pp. 640–692). New York: Oxford University Press.
Wertsch, M. (1991). Military Brats. New York: Harmony Books.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Lingyi Chu, Ruta Ziaunienė
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. All authors agree for publishing their email adresses, affiliations and short bio statements with their articles during the submission process.